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The role of ultrasound in aesthetics injections of botulinum toxin and dermal fillers: References

Alter, K. E., & Karp, B. I. (2017). Ultrasound Guidance for Botulinum Neurotoxin Chemodenervation Procedures. Toxins, 10 (1): 18.

Borba, A., Matayoshi, S., and Rodrigues, M. (2022). Avoiding Complications on the Upper Face Treatment With Botulinum Toxin: A Practical Guide. Aesthetic plastic surgery, 46 (1): 385–394.

British Medical Ultrasound Society (2022). The history of ultrasound. Available at

Cavallini, M., Cirillo, P., Fundarò, S. P., Quartucci, S., Sciuto, C., Sito, G., Tonini, D., Trocchi, G., and Signorini, M. (2014). Safety of botulinum toxin A in aesthetic treatments: a systematic review of clinical studies. Dermatologic surgery: official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.], 40 (5)” 525–536.

Decates, T.S. (2021). The Origin of Soft Tissue Filler Adverse Events: past, present and future. Erasmus University Rotterdam. Retrieved from 14th October 2022).

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Ho, W., Albrecht, P., Calderon, P. E., Corduff, N., Loh, D., Martin, M. U., Park, J. Y., Suseno, L. S., Tseng, F. W., Vachiramon, V., Wanitphakdeedecha, R., Won, C. H., Yu, J., and Dingley, M. (2022). Emerging Trends in Botulinum Neurotoxin A Resistance: An International Multidisciplinary Review and Consensus. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global open, 10 (6), e4407.

Iwayama, T., Hashikawa, K., Osaki, T., Yamashiro, K., Horita, N., and Fukumoto, T. (2018). Ultrasonography-guided Cannula Method for Hyaluronic Acid Filler Injection with Evaluation using Laser Speckle Flowgraphy. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open, 6 (4): e1776.

Jaguś, D., Skrzypek, E., Migda, B., Woźniak, W., and Mlosek, R. K. (2021). Usefulness of Doppler sonography in aesthetic medicine. Journal of Ultrasonography, 20 (83): e268–e272.

Kaproth-Joslin, K. A., Nicola, R., and Dogra, V. S. (2015). The History of US: From Bats and Boats to the Bedside and Beyond: RSNA Centennial Article. Radiographics: a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc, 35 (3): 960–970.

Lee, H. J., Kim, J. S., Youn, K. H., Lee, J., and Kim, H. J. (2018). Ultrasound-Guided Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Injection for Correcting Asymmetrical Smiles. Aesthetic Surgery Journal, 38 (9): NP130–NP134.

Lee, W., Moon, H. J., Kim, J. S., and Yang, E. J. (2021). Safe Glabellar Wrinkle Correction With Soft Tissue Filler Using Doppler Ultrasound. Aesthetic Surgery Journal, 41 (9): 1081–1089.

Lee, W., Kim, J. S., Moon, H. J., and Yang, E. J. (2021). A Safe Doppler Ultrasound-Guided Method for Nasolabial Fold Correction With Hyaluronic Acid Filler. Aesthetic Surgery Journal, 41 (6): NP486–NP492.

Li, Z., Yang, Y., Yu, N., Zhou, W., Li, Z., Chong, Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, H. C., Chen, C., Long, X., and Wang, X. (2022). The "Visible" Muscles on Ultrasound Imaging Make Botulinum Toxin Injection More Precise: A Systematic Review. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 46 (1): 406–418.

Liu, M. H., Beynet, D. P., and Gharavi, N. M. (2019). Overview of Deep Dermal Fillers. Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS, 35 (3): 224–229.

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Miller, A. (2022). Ultrasound imaging in aesthetic practice and what to consider when thinking about its adoption. Journal of Aesthetic Nursing. 11 (3). Available from (Accessed: 11th October 2022).

Mlosek, R. K., Migda, B., Skrzypek, E., Słoboda, K., and Migda, M. (2021). The use of high-frequency ultrasonography for the diagnosis of palpable nodules after the administration of dermal fillers. Journal of Ultrasonography, 20 (83): e248–e253.

Polańska, A., Dańczak-Pazdrowska, A., Jałowska, M., Żaba, R., and Adamski, Z. (2017). Current applications of high-frequency ultrasonography in dermatology. Postepy dermatologii i alergologii, 34 (6): 535–542.

Quezada-Gaon, N., Wortsman, X., Peñaloza, O., and Carrasco, J. E. (2016). Comparison of clinical marking and ultrasound-guided injection of Botulinum type A toxin into the masseter muscles for treating bruxism and its cosmetic effects. Journal of cosmetic dermatology, 15 (3): 238–244.

Schelke, L. W., Decates, T.S. and Velthuis, P. J. (2018). Ultrasound to improve the safety after hyaluronic acid filler treatments. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology. 17 (6): 1019-1024.

Sito, G., Manzoni, V., and Sommariva, R. (2019). Vascular Complications after Facial Filler Injection: A Literature Review and Meta-analysis. The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology, 12 (6): E65–E72.

Urdiales-Gálvez, F., De cabo-Francés, F. M., and Bové, I. (2021). Ultrasound patterns of different dermal filler materials used in aesthetics. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology. 20: 1541–1548.

Wang, Y. H., Chang, S. L., Hu, S., and Huang, Y. L. (2022). Ultrasound-Guided Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection for Masseter Hypertrophy Based on the Structural Pattern of Deep Inferior Tendon and Masseteric Contraction. Plastic and reconstructive Surgery, 150 (1)R 240e–242e.

Wortsman, X., and Wortsman, J. (2011). Sonographic outcomes of cosmetic procedures. AJR. American journal of Roentgenology, 197 (5): W910–W918.

Wu, W. T., Chang, K. V., Chang, H. C., Chen, L. R., Kuan, C. H., Kao, J. T., Wei, L. Y., Chen, Y. J., Han, D. S., and Özçakar, L. (2022). Ultrasound Imaging of the Facial Muscles and Relevance with Botulinum Toxin Injections: A Pictorial Essay and Narrative Review. Toxins, 14 (2): 101.

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